Indistinct Mumblings of an Unsound Mind

Lectures: Parts 1 and 2 //  Slideshow 3 – DNA and the Cell
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Did a quick lab on Mitosis and Meiosis. It was fun enough. Didn’t learn too much on this one, but it was confusing as I hadn’t taken my medications and all the other things going on were distracting me.

Notes:

10:20 – Start Class (Holocaust Speaker on March 7th, from 10:30-11:45)
13:20 – NY Times Article: Cancer, Melonoma (Very dismissive, “Yeay-Yeah. That’s the over-simplification”)
15:00 – Begin Lecture

Transcription and Translation

16:00 – DNA Overview: 3 bases = 1 codon. (How do the organelles really look?)
18:00 – Transcription: the genetic information is copied from the nuclear DNA onto the messenger RNA. This is called  tRNA. // Translation: the mRNA serves as  a template to construct a protein

19:58 – Tip: Transcription vs. Translation
21:00 – 1.) DNA: Sequence of pairs that make a gene (codon) 2.) mRNA: Formed by copying the gene (codon) 3.) Ribosome: Site of protein synthesis 4.) Amino Acids: Make the protein, are made of Codon groups. 5.) tRNA: Carries the Amino Acids used in the building process (anti-codon)

27:45 – RNA polymerase deconstructs the DNA for replication. It only does so where the polymerase is located. It looks a little like a magnifying glass viewing a line of text. (Why are the nucleotides attracted to the “unzipped” DNA strands?)

30:50 – tRNA has anti-codons. Anti-codons are the compliments (opposites, like in Algebra) of the originals. They are still considered RNA, though. That means no Thymine. (Why was there an Upsilon in the Amino Acid chain?)

33:50 – Translation process: 1.) mRNA moves through the Ribosome, sequentially exposing the codons. (Reading it) 2.) Free-Floating tRNA move in (this is triggered by a chemical release in the Ribosome) 3.) Anti-codon bonds with mRNA to create proteins. 4.) tRNA is ejected. (Recycled?)

Animation that was used is from here.

41:45 – Primary structure for proteins is a long link of amino acids. Tertiary structure is the chains all folded together. The amino acids can be from different, seemingly unrelated chromosomes.

43:00 – Structural Genes: code for proteins. Regulatory genes: influence the expression of structural genes.
46:15 – Once a stem cell is made into a specific cell, it cannot produce any other types of cells.
47:40 – Mutation: A change in the nucleotide sequence. It can be caused by copying errors during DNA replication, exposure to chemical mutagens, radiation, or even some viruses and can occur in both somatic cells and gamates.

51:50 – We are all mutants. (Loci pronounciation?)
55:24 – Point mutation: One sequence of DNA (a single codon) is mutated, resulting in a difference. (Sickle cells cause the pain or is it the reduced bloodflow causing the pain?)

60:00 – Insertion and deletion have a bigger effect as they shift the entire amino acid sequence by one or more and produces a completely different protein.

62:00 – Inversion is where two codons switch.
65:00 – 58 point mutations per person (-ish) over their lifespan. 3.2 billion nucleotides in the human genome.
66:30 1.) Human Genome: most DNA is non-transcribed. 2.) Transcribed DNA is the only passable DNA. 3.) Of those that are transcribed, only the bits that are also translated can be passed to the carrier and it’s offspring.

69:30 – Non-viable zygote; Protein non-functional; Protein has reduced function; Neutral effect, Protein has improved function, Protein has new function. (Used example of moths coloration going from bark to ash. I’ve always heard it was pidgeons going from straw colored to soot colored.)

75:20 – Exam Stuff: Mutations are both random and the sole way to create new variants. Reproduction only alters existing genes while true mutations create new/different genes (data).

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